Com que idade a criança aprende a identificar as cores?

23 ago
75 comentário(s)

por Adriana Del Giudice – supervisora pedagógica da Aprendiz

Vez por outra, no momento de supervisão com professores de educação infantil ou durante avaliação dos objetivos para cada faixa etária, ou mesmo em conversas sobre o desenvolvimento infantil com as famílias, esbarro com a seguinte questão: com qual idade a criança deve reconhecer cores ou com quantos anos este aprendizado deve ser concretizado?

Antes de qualquer explicação sobre o tema, é importante deixar claro que há uma grande diferença entre saber identificar as cores e nomeá-las! Agora vamos lá!

Aos três meses de vida, o bebê consegue diferenciar as cores. Sua visão já não é tão embaçada como antes e, portanto, já é capaz de reconhecer alguns tons. A partir deste momento um longo processo acontece em relação à descoberta das cores. É a partir do estimulo oferecido que a criança aprenderá a distinguir e memorizar o nome das cores.

A percepção das características de um objeto, semelhanças e diferenças, vai ajudar o elemento cor a entrar de forma natural neste contexto. Um dos eixos principais da educação infantil consiste em apresentar o mundo que cerca os alunos de forma lúdica e prazerosa a partir de experiências concretas e vivenciais.

Nesta idade experimentar é fundamental. A criança interpreta e internaliza as características de cada elemento. E daí a importância de manusear e interagir com o objeto em questão ou com a sua representação gráfica.

Quando falamos árvore, cada adulto imediatamente tem uma imagem mental desta palavra. A sua árvore pode ser grande ou pequena, com frutos ou sem, mas todos sabem que uma árvore é um vegetal que tem raízes, tronco, folhas etc. A criança muito nova ainda não tem capacidade de fazer isto. Por volta dos dois anos, ela iniciará o desenvolvimento do pensamento representativo – esse que acabo de citar. Até então, tudo fica no campo da concretude.

Quando quiser falar bola para uma criança, é preciso mostrar o objeto e/ou sua representação gráfica, caso contrário a palavra não fará muito sentido para os menores de dois anos. Outra questão pontual é o desenvolvimento da linguagem. Logo, se uma criança ainda não fala, poderá identificar uma cor, mas não irá nomeá-la, certo?

Então, para que uma criança aprenda o nome de uma cor, existe todo um trabalho antes desta conquista, inclusive lógica. Há muita matemática envolvida no processo, podem acreditar! É preciso entender as diferenças e as semelhanças entre os objetos a partir de suas características. O que mostra a importância de trabalharmos durante a educação infantil com classificação e pareamento dos objetivos.

Uma criança pode saber identificar e reconhecer uma cor quando pedimos que pegue, por exemplo, um objeto azul. Mas se a pergunta mudar, ela pode se confundir. A mesma criança que acaba de trazer o objeto azul, pode não entender quando o professor pega uma bolinha azul e pergunta: que cor é esta?

Ficou claro que o aprendizado das cores é uma construção diária, realizada em etapas e que ocorre por meio da interação da criança com o meio em que vive? É um longo e divertido processo, que começa com poucos meses de vida e se estende até a primeira infância.

Então, vamos colorir o mundo e ajudá-los a embarcar nesta descoberta?!

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